World War I

World War I, also known as First World War or Great War,

 The world has gone through many battles, revolutions and wars, including the small ones and the large ones, some of which were ending shortly and some that had been going on for several years, and from the long wars that lasted for ages,

World War I, an international war that included many countries from the entire world; Thirty-three countries participated. In addition, this war had several causes. Including direct and indirect reasons, here in this article we will discuss about this war briefly.

Indirect reasons:

  • The occurrence of some international crises due to their competition on controlling other countries, and among these crises:
  1. The Marrakesh crisis, which occurred between France and Germany.
  2.  The crisis that occurred due to Germany’s control on the Alsace-Lorraine in France.
  3.  The Balkan crisis that occurred after Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina under its control.
  • What was known as the arms race, which was that the countries were racing to get the largest possible amount of weapons, so European countries sought to possess a lot of weapons.
  • Economic competition; Where European countries have been searching for markets to sell out what they produce after the industrial revolution.
  • Forming alliances between countries to reinforce strength and common interests; Among those alliances are the ones between the League of Emperors, the alliance among the Central powers, and the Triple Entente Alliance, the presence of these alliances increased tension between the relations of European countries with each other.

Direct causes:

 The assassination of the Austrian crown prince and his wife on the hands of a student from Serbia, during their visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and that was on July 28 in 1914. It is traditionally regarded as the immediate catalyst for the war, so Austria declared war on Serbia, and then Russia declared war on Austria, so Germany intervened and was against both Russia and Serbia, And France declared war on Germany, while Britain declared war on the central powers and then the Ottoman Empire joined them, and China and Japan entered the war to be with the Triple Entente, and Italy entered the war as well, and the countries continued to enter the war one after the other until the number of countries participating in War reached 33 countries.

The results of the war: 

  •  The war ended with the loss of Germany and its allies in the Second Battle of the Marne in 1918 AD. The war officially ended when Germany declared its surrender.
  •  The casualties in the war were about nine million dead, and many more wounded and disfigured.
  •  The war destroyed many crops, several cities and millions of homes and buildings.
  •  The war destroyed railways in the regions where the war took place.
  •  According to the Treaty of 1920, the war caused the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.
  •  The size of some European countries increased and others decreased. For example:
  1. France, Britain, Belgium and Italy expanded.
  2. Austria, Germany and Bulgaria have reduced.
  • Creating and establishing some international organizations; Like the League of Nations, whose charter was established in 1919.
  • Several Arab countries fell under the mandate, and that was according to the Sykes-Picot Agreement that was approved by the victors in the war.